Bose, Sir Jagadis Chunder (1858–1937)
An Indian scientist who pioneered research into plant physiology.
He was born November 30, 1858, in the village of Rarikhal
in Vikrampur, East Bengal, India, and educated at Calcutta
and in England at Cambridge University. His accomplishments
were recognized in his election as president of the Indian Science
Congress in 1927 and his being named a member of the
International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the
League of Nations. He also received many honors from scientific
communities in Europe.
Bose attempted to demonstrate that the gap between living
and nonliving matter was less distinct than normally supposed,
and he claimed that even stones had some rate of life related
to that of living organisms. In 1901 he demonstrated to the
Royal Society in Britain that the responses of metals to poison
and other stimuli resembled muscular response in living organisms.
In his delicate experiments with plant physiology, Bose anticipated
the work of contemporary experimenters like Cleve
Backster. As early as 1903 the Royal Society, London, published
in their Philosophical Transactions Bose’s reports of experiments
with plants from which he concluded that ‘‘all the characteristics
of the responses exhibited by the animal tissues, were
also found in those of the plant.’’ Bose devised sensitive apparatus
to demonstrate plant reactions, many of which resembled
nervous responses in animal or human life, and he even measured
the electrical forces released in the death-spasms of vegetables.
In 1917 Bose was knighted for his many valuable services
to science. He died November 23, 1937.
From 1950 on, some of his experiments with plant sensitivity
were extended by Dr. T. C. N. Singh of the Department of
Botany, Annamalai University, India, who claimed that plants
responded measurably to music and to prayer.
Sources
Bose, J. C. Growth and Tropic Movements of Plants. London
New York Longmans, Green and Co., 1929.
———. Motor Mechanisms of Plants. LondonNew York
Longmans, Green and Co., 1928.
———. The Nervous Mechanism of Plants. LondonNew York
Longmans, Green and Co., 1926.
———. The Physiology of the Ascent of Sap. LondonNew York
Longmans, Green and Co., 1923.
———. The Physiology of Photosynthesis. LondonNew York
Longmans, Green and Co., 1924.
———. Plant Autographs & Their Revelations. Washington,
1915.
———. Plant Response as a Means of Physiological Investigation.
LondonNew York Longmans, Green and Co., 1906.
———. Researches in Irritability of Plants. LondonNew York
Longmans Green and Co., 1913.
———. Response in the Living and Non-Living. LondonNew
York Longmans, Green and Co., 1902.
Geddes, Patrick. The Life and Work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose. LondonNew
York Longmans, Green and Co., 1920.

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