Campbell, Joseph (1904–1987)
A prominent American authority on mythology and leading
exponent of the idea of ‘‘myth’’ as an inherent characteristic of
humanity. Campbell was born March 26, 1904, in New York
City. He studied at Dartmouth College, (1921–22) and Columbia
University (A.B., 1925; M.A., 1927). He did additional
graduate study at the University of Paris and the University of
Munich. He taught for a year at Canterbury School, New Milford,
Connecticut, before joining the faculty in the literature
department at Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, New York
(1934–72), where he taught until his retirement.
Campbell began his literary work as editor of the writings of
his friend Heinrich Zimmer. His first independent work, The
Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949), examines a number of
‘‘hero’’ tales from around the world in which Campbell discerns
the same basic outline. In the book he offers a thesis that myths
provide instruction on how we should live, and says that the
common themes of mythology throughout the world show
these ideas are inherent in human biology. He also launches his
search for what he terms the ‘‘monomyth,’’ the single underlying
story all the myths tell.
He followed The Hero with a Thousand Faces with a fourvolume
work, The Masks of God (1959–68), which traces the development
of ancient mythology and argues for the need of a
new worldwide mythology adaptable to the emerging worldwide
Campbell’s last years were spent writing the proposed sixvolume
Historical Atlas of World Mythology, of which only two volumes
were completed. He did complete a series of interviews
with Bill Moyers that were broadcast posthumously over the
Public Broadcasting Service as ‘‘The Power of Myth.’’ The television
series brought Campbell’s works a measure of acclaim
the man himself never enjoyed in life.
Campbell died on October 31, 1987. His library and papers
have been deposited at the Pacifica Institute in Santa Barbara,
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New
York Pantheon, 1949.
———. Historical Atlas of World Mythologies. 2 vols. New York
Harper, 1983–88.
———. The Masks of God. 6 vols. New York Viking, 1959–68.
———. Myths to Live By. New York Viking, 1972.
Campion, Nicolas (1953– )
Nicolas Campion, an astrologer known for his scholarly accomplishments,
was born on March 4, 1953, in England. He
traces his interest in astrology to his childhood, and was only
12 years old when his horoscope was cast. He began the study
of astrology as a teenager. While pursuing that study, he also
attended Queen’s College, Cambridge, the School of African
and Oriental Studies (B.A. History, 1974) and the London
School of Economics (M.A., 1976). He taught school while establishing
himself as an astrologer and in 1984 became a fulltime
professional. He was named to the managing committee
of the Astrological Lodge of London. He served as president
of the lodge on two occasions (1985–88 and 1992–present).
Above and beyond his work with individual clients, Campion
has devoted himself to the study of astrological history and
especially to the relationship between politics and astrology.
Campion is himself very active in environment politics. His
work led to his most important book to date, The Book of World
Horoscopes. He has also written important essays on the history
of astrology, the best known being his debunking of the idea
of an ‘‘Age of Aquarius.’’ While his conclusions about the nonexistence
of an Age of Aquarius were widely accepted, his work
was weakened by his assumption that ancient astrologers were
unaware of the progression of the equinoxes.
His work has been widely acknowledged by his contemporaries,
and in 1992 he received the Marc Edmund Jones Award
for his contributions to astrological studies by the National Astrological
Society of the United States. He has lectured widely
to astrological organizations across Europe and North America.
Campion, Nicolas. ‘‘The Age of Aquarius A Modern Myth.’’
In Joan McEvers, ed. The Astrology of the Macrocosm. St. Paul,
Minn. Llewellyn Publications, 1990.
———. The Book of World Horoscopes. Wellingborough, UK
Aquarian Press, 1988.
Camp Meetings
Camp meetings (also known as ‘‘assemblies’’) have occupied
an important place in the advancement of Spiritualism since
1873, when the first camp meeting was initiated at Lake Pleasant,
Massachusetts. These camp meetings were very like the revivalistic
camp meetings of the early twentieth century and the
successful summer chautauquas at Chautauqua Lake, New
York. The meetings lasted throughout the summer season and
many of the mediums took up residence on the grounds. Lily
Dale in New York and Onset and Lake Pleasant in Massachusetts
were the leading camps. Today, a small number of camps,
such as Cassadaga (Florida), Chesterfield (Indiana), Silver
Belle (Pennsylvania), and Lily Dale, still exist.
Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Camp Meetings
Karcher, Janet. The Way to Cassadaga A Look at Spiritualism,
Its Roots, and Beliefs, and Cassadaga, Florida. Daltona, Fla. J.
Hutchinson Productions, 1980.

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