Crumbaugh, James C(harles) (1912– )
American psychologist and parapsychologist. He was born
December 11, 1912, in Terrell, Texas, and educated at Baylor
University (B.A., 1935), Southern Methodist University (M.A.,
1938), and the University of Texas (Ph.D., 1953). Crumbaugh’s
education was interrupted by World War II, when he served as
an assistant psychologist in the U.S. Army Air Force Aviation
Cadet Classification Program (1941–45). After the war he became
an instructor in psychology at Memphis State University,
a post he held while finishing his doctorate (1947–56). He
served in the Veterans Administration Post-Doctoral Training
Program in Clinical Psychology (1956–57); as chairman of the
Department of Psychology, MacMurray College, Jacksonville,
Illinois (1957–59), and as research director of the Bradley Center,
Columbus, Georgia (1959–64). In 1964 he became a staff
psychologist at the VA Hospital at Gulfport, Mississippi.
During the 1960s Crumbaugh received two grants from the
Parapsychology Foundation for work on the repeatability of
experiments in ESP. In spite of many years of experimentation,
Crumbaugh did not discover significant psi effects, but
stressed the importance of the experimenter and repeatability
in parapsychology. His research resulted in articles contributed
to various psychological and parapsychological journals.
Crumbaugh, James C. ‘‘A Scientific Critique of Parapsychology.’’
Behavior Psychology 2 (September–October 1966).

Previous articleChariots of the Gods
Next articleCosmic Consciousness