Greenwood, Joseph Albert (1906–1988)
Mathematician who worked in the field of parapsychology.
He was born September 18, 1906, at Breckenridge, Missouri,
and studied at the University of Missouri (B.A., 1927; M.A.,
1929; Ph.D., 1931).
He was an instructor and later an assistant professor of
mathematics at Duke University (1930–42). While there he
worked with J. B. Rhine, who recruited him to provide the statistical
work for his research on parapsychology. Greenwood
Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Greenwood, Joseph Albert
emerged as a major spokesperson answering criticisms of the
statistical work being carried on at Duke, about which he wrote
a number of articles. After the war began in 1942, he left Duke
to serve in the United States Navy (1942–46). He spent his
postwar career working for the U.S. government. He became
a charter associate of the Parapsychological Association.
Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of
Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York Paragon
House, 1991.
Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man. ‘‘Joseph A.
Greenwood, 1906–1988.’’ Foundation for Research on the Nature
of Man Bulletin 37 (Spring 1988).
Greenwood, Joseph A. ‘‘Analysis of a Large Chance Control
Series of ESP Data.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 2 (1938).
———. ‘‘A Co-Variation Statistic.’’ Journal of Parapsychology
3 (1939).
———. ‘‘An Empirical Investigation of Some Sampling
Problems.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 2 (1938).
———. ‘‘Mathematical Techniques Used in ESP Research.’’
Journal of Parapsychology 1 (1937).
———. ‘‘A Reply to Dr. Feller’s Critique.’’ Journal of Parapsychology
4 (1940).
———. ‘‘Some Mathematical Problems for Future Consideration
Suggested by ESP Research.’’ Journal of Parapsychology
3 (1939).
———. ‘‘Variance of the ESP Call Series.’’ Journal of Parapsychology
2 (1938).
Greenwood, Joseph A., and C. E. Stuart. ‘‘Review of Criticisms
of the Mathematical Evaluation of ESP Data.’’ Journal of
Parapsychology 1 (1937).
Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology.
New York Helix Press, 1964.

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