A degree of Freemasonry very popular in the north of England,
especially in the county of Durham, and probably
founded in Gateshead in 1681. It was brought under the Grand
Lodge in 1735. Members were the custodians of the Ritual of
All Masonry, or the Old York Ritual. There were nine lodges
in all. A London version of this society was the Harodim-RosyCross,
of Jacobite origin, probably carried to London by the
earl of Derwentwater. In 1787 a Grand Chapter of the Ancient
and Venerable Order of Harodim was founded by William
Preston, author of Illustrations of Masonry (1775).
Preston, William. Illustrations of Masonry. London, 1775.