Many occult beliefs and practices stem from the complex religious
and mystical concepts of India and her people. It might
be said that the mysticism of the Hindus was a reaction against
the austere religion and practical ceremonial of the sacred
scriptures, the Vedas. If its trend were summarized it might justly
be said that the Vedas point champion detachment; the pantheistic
identification of the subject and object, worshiper and
worship, aimed at ultimate absorption in the Infinite; inculcating
transcendence from the material world through the most
minute self-examination, the cessation of physical powers; and
belief in the spiritual guidance of the guru or mystical adept.
For the Indian theosophist there is only one Absolute Being,
the One Reality. However, in popular Hinduism, the pantheistic
doctrine of Ekam advitiyam the One without Second supposes
a countless pantheon of gods, great and small, and a rich
demonology, but these should be understood ultimately as
merely illusions of the soul and not realities. Upon the souls
coming to fuller knowledge, its illusions are totally dispelled.
According to such a theory, to the ordinary man and woman
the impersonality of the Absolute being is too remote, and they
require a symbolic deity to bridge the gulf between the impersonal
Absolute and the very material self, hence the numerous
gods of Hinduism regarded by the initiated merely as manifestations
of the Supreme Spirit.
In this way, even the everyday forms of temple idols can be
seen as possessing higher meaning. As Sir Alfred Lyall stated,
It [Brahminism] treats all the worships as outward visible
signs of the same spiritual truth, and is ready to show how each
particular image or rite is the symbol of some aspect of universal
divinity. The Hindus, like the pagans of antiquity, adore
natural objects and forces,a mountain, a river, or an animal.
The Brahmin holds all nature to be the vesture or cloak of indwelling
divine energy which inspires everything that produces
all or passes mans understanding.
A life time of asceticism has from the remotest times been
regarded in India as a true preparation for communion with
the deity. Asceticism has been extremely prevalent especially in
connection with the cult of the god Siva, who is in great measure
regarded as the prototype of this class.
The yogis (disciples of the yoga philosophy) practice mental
abstraction, and are popularly supposed to attain to superhuman
powers. In some cases their extreme ascetic practices have
resulted in madness or mental vacancy and many claimed paranormal
powers, as in Spiritualism, have turned out to be jugglery
and conjuring. Charlatans, of course, exist in all religions.
The authentic prerequisites of the training of a yogi preclude
such imposture and warn against the vanity of displaying supernatural
The paramahamsas, that is supreme swans, are believed
to have achieved communion with the world-soul through spiritual
disciplines and meditation. They are said to be equally indifferent
to pleasure or pain, insensible to heat or cold, and incapable
of satiety or want. The sannyasis are those who
renounce the world and live as wandering monks or residents
in an ashram or spiritual retreat. The dandis, or staff-bearers,
are worshipers of Siva in his form of Bhairava the Terrible.
J. C. Oman in Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (1903) said
of these sadhus or holy men,
Sadhuism, whether perpetuating the peculiar idea of the efficacy
of asceticism for the acquisition of far-reaching powers
over natural phenomena, or bearing its testimony to the belief
in the indispensableness of detachment from the world as a
preparation for the ineffable joy of ecstatic communion with
the Divine Being, has undoubtedly tended to keep before
mens eyes, as the highest ideal, a life of purity, self-restraint,
and contempt of the world and human affairs. It has also necessarily
maintained amongst the laity a sense of the righteous
claims of the poor upon the charity of the more affluent members
of the community. Further, Sadhuism, by the multiplicity
of the independent sects which have arisen in India has engendered
and favoured a spirit of tolerance which cannot escape
the notice of the most superficial observer.
Of the three main branches of Hinduism, the most esoteric
is the Shaktas. The Shaktas are worshipers of the shakti or the
female principle as a creative and reproductive agency. Each of
the principal gods possesses his own Shakti, through which his
creative acts are performed. The Shaktas or Tantrics developed
an elaborate picture of the subtle anatomy of the individual,
Independent Drawing and Painting Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology 5th Ed.
proposing that each person had a secondary body composed
of spiritualpsychic energies. In Tantra, sexual energy in the
yogi is manifested in a pure form as kundalini, a psychophysiological
force resting like a coiled snake at the base of the
spine. When awakened, the kundalini travels up the spine to
the several psychic centers called chakras and eventually to the
top of the head. The rise of the kundalini to the highest chakra
brings higher consciousness and spiritual enlightenment.
Tantrics usually can be divided into two distinct groups. The
original self-existent gods were supposed to divide themselves
into male and female energies, the male half occupying the
right-hand and the female the left-hand side. From this conception
we have the two groups of right-hand observers and
left-hand observers. In distinction to the ascetic worlddenying
approach to the religious life, Tantra does not offer
enlightenment as a result of denying the material world, but
from using it. Tantric practice takes things specifically denied
to the ascetic and accepts them as the means of overcoming
the world and gaining enlightenment. The righthand path
does this symbolically, the left hand path actually eats denied
food and participates in denied activities. Most controversial of
all is sexual activity, for which tantrics have been most frequently
criticized. The left-hand path of Tantra involves participation
in sexual intercourse as a means of union with the goddess.
The right hand tantrism was expounded by Sri Aurobindo
and Pandit Gopi Krishna. Lefthand tantrism has found a
major exponent in Swami Satyananda Saraswati whose students
have moved to the west.
Brahmanism is a system originated by the Brahmans, the
sacerdotal caste of the Hindus, at a comparatively early date.
It is the mystical religion of India par excellence, and represents
the older beliefs of its peoples. It states that the numerous individual
existences of animate nature are only so many manifestations
of the one eternal spirit towards which they tend as their
final goal of supreme bliss. The object of life is to prevent oneself
sinking lower in the scale, and by degrees to raise oneself
in it, or if possible to attain the ultimate goal immediately from
such state of existence as one happens to be in.
The socio-religious Code of Manu concludes He who in his
own soul perceives the supreme soul in all beings and acquires
equanimity towards them all attains the highest state of bliss.
Mortification of animal instincts, absolute purity and perfection
of spirit, were the moral ideals of the Brahman class. But
it was necessary to pass through a succession of four orders or
states of existence before any hope of union with the deity
could be held out. These were that of brahmacharin, or student
of religious matters; grihastha, or householder; varnaprastha or
hermit; and sannyasin or bhikshu, religious mendicant.
Virtually every man of the higher castes practiced at least
the first two of these stages, while the priestly class took the entire
course. Later, this was by no means the rule, as the scope
of study was intensely exacting, often lasting as long as fortyeight
years. The neophyte had to support himself by begging
from door to door.
He was most often guided by a spiritual preceptor. After several
years of his tuition he was married. It was considered absolutely
essential that he should leave a son behind him to offer
food to his spirit and to those of his ancestors. He was then said
to have become a house-holder and was required to maintain
the fire perpetually that he brought into his house upon his
Upon growing older, the time arrived for him to enter the
third stage of life. Having fulfilled his dharma (social and religious
obligations) he now became aware of the transitory nature
of the material life and found it necessary to become preoccupied
with more eternal spiritual truth. He consequently cut
himself off from family ties except (if she wished) his wife, who
might accompany him, and went into retirement in a lonely
place, carrying with him his sacred fire, and the instruments
necessary for his daily sacrifices. Scantily clothed, the anchorite
lived entirely on food growing wild in the forestroots, herbs,
wild grain, and similar primitive nourishment. He was not permitted
to accept gifts unless absolutely necessary. His time was
spent in studying the metaphysical portions of the Vedas under
the guidance of a guru, in making offerings, and in practicing
austerities with the object of producing entire indifference to
In this way he fitted himself for the final and most exalted
order, that of religious mendicant or bhikshu. This consisted
solely of meditation. He took up his abode at the foot of a tree
in entire solitude and only once a day at the end of his labors
might he go near the dwellings of men to beg a little food. In
this way he waited for death, neither desiring extinction nor existence,
until at length it reached him, and was absorbed in the
The doctrines of Brahmanism are to be found in the vedanta
philosophic system, which recognizes the Vedas, a collection
of ancient Sanskrit hymns, as the revealed source of religious
belief through the visions of the ancient rishis or seers. The
Upanishads are later scriptures (after 1000 B.C.E.). The Vedas
and Upanishads are the most widely accepted holy writings in
India. A large number of later writings are also accepted by various
groups as sacred scripture. Among the most popular of
these later scriptures is the Bhagavad-Gita.
As before noted, the Hindu regarded the entire gamut of
animated nature as being traversed by the one soul, which journeyed
up and down the scale as its actions in its previous existence
were good or evil. To the Hindu the vital element in all
animate beings appears essentially similar, and this observation
gave credence to the Brahmanical theory of reincarnation that
took such a powerful hold upon the Hindu mind.
A large and intricate demonology appears as part of Hindu
mythology. The gods were at constant war with demons. Vishnu
slew more than one demon, but Durga appeared to have been
a great enemy of the demon race. The asuras, probably a very
ancient and aboriginal pantheon of deities, later became demons
in the popular imagination, and the rakshasas may have
been cloud-demons. They were described as cannibals, could
take many forms, and were constantly menacing the gods. They
haunted cemeteries, disturbed sacrifices, animated the dead,
and harried and afflicted mankind in all sorts of ways. There
were in fact somewhat similar to the vampires of Slavonic countriesassisting
the conjecture that the Slavonic vampires were
We find the gods constantly harassed by demons, and on the
whole may be justified in concluding that just as the Tuatha-dedanaan
harassed the later deities of Ireland, so did these aboriginal
gods lead an existence of constant warfare with the divine
beings of the pantheon of the immigrant Aryans.
Popular Witchcraft & Sorcery
The popular witchcraft and sorcery of India resembles that
of Europe. The Dravidian or aboriginal peoples of India have
always been strong believers in sorcery, and it is possible that
this is an example of the mythic influence of a conquered people.
They are nonetheless extremely reticent regarding any
knowledge they possess of it.
It seems possible that the demands made upon the popular
religious sense by Brahmanism crushed the superstitions of the
popular occult practices of the very early period, and confined
the practice of minor sorcery, (malevolent magic), to the castes
of Dravidian or aboriginal stock. Witchcraft seems most prevalent
among the more isolated peoples like the Kols, Bhils, and
The nomadic peoples were also strong believers in sorcery,
one of the most dreaded forms of which was the Jigar Khor, or
liver-eater, of whom Abul Fazl (15511602) stated
Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology 5th Ed. INDIA
One of this class can steal away the liver of another by looks
and incantations. Other accounts say that by looking at a person
he deprives him of his senses, and then steals from him
something resembling the seed of a pomegranate, which he
hides in the calf of his leg; after being swelled by the fire, he
distributes it among his fellows to be eaten, which ceremony
concludes the life of the fascinated person. A Jigar Khor is able
to communicate his art to another by teaching him incantations,
and by making him eat a bit of the liver cake. These Jigar
Khors are mostly women. It is said they can bring intelligence
from a long distance in a short space of time, and if they are
thrown into a river with a stone tied to them, they nevertheless
will not sink. In order to deprive any one of this wicked power,
they brand his temples and every joint of his body, cram his
eyes with salt, suspend him for forty days in a subterranean
chamber, and repeat over him certain incantations.
The witch does not, however, devour the mans liver for two
and a half days, and even if she has eaten it, and is put under
the hands of an exorcizer, can be forced to substitute a liver of
some animal in the body of the man whom she victimized. Folk
tales also exist about witches taking out the entrails of people,
sucking them, and then replacing them.
All this undoubtedly illustrates, as in ancient France and
Germany, and probably also in the Slavonic countries, the manner
in which the witch and vampire were believed to be essentially
one and the same. In India the archwitch Ralaratri, or
black night has the joined eyebrows, large cheeks, widelyparted
lips, and projecting teeth, of the Slavonic werewolf and
is a veritable vampire. But she also possesses the powers of ordinary
witchcraftsecond-sight, the making of philters, the control
of tempests, the evil eye, and so forth.
Witches also took animal forms, especially those of tigers,
and stories of trials are related at which people gave evidence
that they had tracked certain tigers to their lairs, which upon
entering they had found tenanted by a notorious witch or wizard.
For such witch-tigers the usual remedy was to knock out
their teeth to prevent their doing any more mischief.
Strangely enough, the Indian witch, like her European prototype,
was very often accompanied by a cat. The cat, said the
jungle people, is aunt to the tiger, and taught him everything
but how to climb a tree. Zalim Sinh, the famous regent of Kota,
believed that cats were associated with witches, and imagining
himself enchanted ordered that every cat should be expelled
from his province.
As in Europe, witches were known by certain marks. They
were believed to learn the secrets of their craft by eating offal
of all kinds. The popular belief concerning them was that they
were often very handsome and neat, and invariably applied a
clear line of red lead to the parting of their hair. They were
popularly accused of exhuming dead children and bringing
them to life to serve occult purposes of their own. Witches could
not die as long as they were witches and until (as in Italy) they
could pass on their knowledge of witchcraft to someone else.
They recited charms backwards, repeating two letters and a
half from a verse in the Quran. If a certain charm was repeated
forwards, the person employing it would become invisible to
his neighbor, but if he repeated it backwards, he would assume
whatever shape he chose.
A witch could acquire power over her victim by getting possession
of a lock of hair, the paring of nails, or some other part
of his body, such as a tooth. For this reason Indian people were
extremely careful about the disposal of these particular body
parts, burying them in the earth in a place covered with grass,
or in the neighborhood of water, which witches universally disliked.
Some people even cast the cuttings of their hair into running
Like the witches of Europe, these witches also made images
of persons out of wax, dough, or similar substances, and tortured
them with the idea that the pain would be felt by the person
whom they desired to injure.
In India the witchesfamiliar was known as a bir or the
hero, who aided her to inflict injury upon human beings. The
power of the witch was greatest on the 14th, 15th, and 29th of
each month, and in particular on the Feast of Lamps (Diwali)
and the Festival of Durga.
Witches were often severely punished amongst the isolated
hill-folk and diabolical ingenuity was shown in torturing them.
To nullify their evil influence, they were beaten with rods of the
castor-oil plant and usually died in the process. They were
often forced to drink filthy water used by couriers in the process
of their work. If not, their noses were cut off, or they were put
to death. It has also been reported that their teeth were often
knocked out, their heads shaved and offal thrown at them. In
the case of women, their heads were shaved and their hair was
attached to a tree in some public place. They were also branded,
had a ploughshare tied to their legs or were made to drink
the water of a tannery.
During the Mutiny, when British authority was relaxed, the
most atrocious horrors were inflicted upon witches and sorcerers
by the Dravidian people. Pounded chili peppers were
placed in their eyes to see if they would bring tears, and the
wretched beings were suspended from a tree head downwards,
being swung violently from side to side. They were then forced
to drink the blood of a goat, and to exorcize the evil spirits that
they had caused to enter the bodies of certain sick persons. The
mutilations and cruelties practiced on them were severe; but
one of the favorite ways of counteracting the spells of a witch
was to draw blood from her, and the local priest would often
prick the tongue of the witch with a needle and place the resulting
blood on some rice and compel her to eat it.
In Bombay state, the Tharus people were supposed to possess
special powers of witchcraft, so that the Land of Tharus
is a synonym for witch-land. In Gorakhpur, witches were also
very numerous and the half-gypsy banjaras, or grain-carriers,
were notorious believers in witchcraft. In his Popular Religion
and Folk-lore of Northern India (1896) William Crooke, who did
much to elucidate Indias popular mythology, stated regarding
the various types of Indian witches
At the present day [ca. 1895] the half-deified witch most
dreaded in the Eastern Districts of the North-western Provinces
is Lona, or Nona, a Chamarin or woman of the currier caste.
Her legend is in this wise. The great physician Dhanwantara,
who corresponds to Luqman Hakim of the Muhammadans, was
once on his way to cure King Parikshit, and was deceived and
bitten by the snake king Takshaka. He therefore desired his
sons to roast him and eat his flesh, and thus succeed to his magical
powers. The snake king dissuaded them from eating the
unholy meal, and they let the cauldron containing it float down
the Ganges. A currier woman, named Lona, found it and ate
the contents, and thus succeeded to the mystic powers of Dhanwantara.
She became skilful in cures, particularly of snake-bite.
Finally she was discovered to be a witch by the extraordinary
rapidity with which she could plant out rice seedlings. One day
the people watched her, and saw that when she believed herself
unobserved she stripped herself naked, and taking the bundle
of the plants in her hands threw them into the air, reciting certain
spells. When the seedlings forthwith arranged themselves
in their proper places, the spectators called out in astonishment,
and finding herself discovered, Nona rushed along over
the country, and the channel which she made in her course is
the Loni river to this day. So a saint in Broach formed a new
course for a river by dragging his clothes behind him. . .
Another terrible witch, whose legend is told at Mathura, is
Putana, the daughter of Bali, king of the lower world. She
found the infant Krishna asleep, and began to suckle him with
her devils milk. The first drop would have poisoned a mortal
child, but Krishna drew her breast with such strength that he
drained her life-blood, and the fiend, terrifying the whole land
of Braj with her cries of agony, fell lifeless on the ground. European
witches suck the blood of children; here the divine Krishna
turns the tables on the witch.
INDIA Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology 5th Ed.
The Palwar Rajputs of Oudh have a witch ancestress. Soon
after the birth of her son she was engaged in baking cakes. Her
infant began to cry, and she was obliged to perform a double
duty. At this juncture her husband arrived just in time to see
his demon wife assume gigantic and supernatural proportions,
so as to allow both the baking and nursing to go on at the same
time. But finding her secret discovered, the witch disappeared,
leaving her son as a legacy to her astonished husband. Here,
though the story is incomplete, we have almost certainly, as in
the case of Nona Chamarin, one of the Melusina type of legend,
where the supernatural wife leaves her husband and children,
because he violated some taboo, by which he is forbidden
to see her in a state of nudity, or the like.
The aborigines of India lived in great fear of ghosts and invisible
spirits, and a considerable portion of their time was
given up to averting the evil influences of these. Protectives of
every description littered their houses, and the approaches to
them, and they wore numerous amulets for the purpose of
averting evil influences. Regarding these, W. Crooke stated
Some of the Indian ghosts, like the ifrit of the Arabian
Nights, can grow to the length of ten yojanas or eighty miles.
In one of the Bengal tales a ghost is identified because she can
stretch out her hands several yards for a vessel. Some ghosts
possess the very dangerous power of entering human corpses,
like the Vetala, and swelling to an enormous size. The Kharwars
of Mirzapur have a wild legend which tells how long ago
an unmarried girl of the tribe died, and was being cremated.
While the relations were collecting wood for the pyre, a ghost
entered the corpse, but the friends managed to expel him.
Since then great care is taken not to leave the bodies of women
unwatched. So, in the Punjab, when a great person is cremated
the bones and ashes are carefully watched till the fourth day,
to prevent a magician interfering with them. If he has a chance,
he can restore the deceased to life, and ever after retain him
under his influence. This is the origin of the custom in Great
Britain of waking the dead, a practice which most probably
originated from a silly superstition as to the danger of a corpse
being carried off by some of the agents of the invisible world,
or exposed to the ominous liberties of brute animals. But in
India it is considered the best course, if the corpse cannot be
immediately disposed of, to measure it carefully, and then no
malignant Bhut can occupy it.
Most of the ghosts whom we have been as yet considering
are malignant. There are, however, others which are friendly.
Such are the German Elves, the Robin Goodfellow, Puck,
Brownie and the Cauld Lad of Hilton of England, the Glashan
of the Isle of Man, the Phouka or Leprechaun of Ireland. Such,
in one of his many forms, is the Brahmadaitya, or ghost of a
Brahman who has died unmarried. In Bengal he is believed to
be more neat and less mischievous than other ghosts; the Bhuts
carry him in a palanquin, he wears wooden sandals, and lives
in a Banyan tree.
Psychical Research and Parapsychology
While Madame Blavatskys Theosophist movement did find
its way to India, the scientific study of psychical phenomena in
India really belongs to the period following independence
(1948). A small beginning took place in 1951 at the Department
of Philosophy and Psychology of Benares Hindu University
under Bhikhan L. Atreya, when parapsychology was included
as a postgraduate subject, but it did not make much
progress. Other Indian scholars such as C. T. K. Chari and S.
Parthasarthy of Madras, and Prof. & Mrs. Akolkar of Poona did
become interested in psychical phenomena. Prof. Chari took a
special interest in scientific and statistical approaches and published
papers in the Journal of the American Society of Psychical
Another pioneer was K. Ramakrishna Rao, professor and
head of the Department of Psychology and Parapsychology at
Andhra University who worked for several years at Duke University,
North Carolina, and then established the department
at Andhra University and collaborated with B. K. Kanthamani.
Rao subsequently became president of the Parapsychological
Association for 1965 and 1978, and was later director of the Institute
for Parapsychology, Durham, North Carolina.
In North India, Dr. Sampurananand first became interested
in parapsychology when Education Minister, and later initiated
study of the paranormal at the University of Lucknow in conjunction
with Kali Prasad, head of the Department of Philosophy
and Psychology. When Sampurananand was appointed
Governor of Rajasthan, he helped to establish a department of
parapsychology at the Rajasthan University at Jaipur, although
this was subsequently closed. Since then, however, there has
been interest in the subject for postgraduate degrees in Lucknow
and Agra Universities.
In 196263, the Bureau of Psychology in Allahabad took up
a research project in parapsychology, studying (ESP) Extra
sensory perception in schoolchildren. The results were published
in the International Journal of Parapsychology in the Autumn
In 1964, Jamuna Prasad, president of the Indian Institute
of Parapsychology, Allahabad, assisted Ian Stevenson who visited
India to investigate reported cases of reincarnation first
hand. A group of researchers took part in this project, which
involved a Specific Trait Questionnaire designed to assess the
possible impressions of past experiences carried over to another
incarnation. With the formal establishment of the Indian Institute
of Parapsychology, another valuable project on Paranormal
Powers Manifested During Yogic Training was
undertaken with a grant from the Parapsychology Foundation.
Of a slightly different nature was Project Consciousness
inaugurated in December 1966 by Karan Singh, Minister of
Health and Family Planning. This project, conducted by the
National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore,
was largely concerned with exploration of the ancient
Hindu concept of kundalini as a psycho-physiological force in
humans related to sexual energy, and in a sublimated form, to
levels of higher consciousness. Interest stemmed from the work
of Pandit Gopi Krishna, one of several modern spiritual teachers
who revived interest in the subject through his writing and
teaching activity. The project languished after a change of government.
Indian publications concerned with parapsychology have included
Darshana International (quarterly journal of philosophy,
psychology, psychical research, religion and mysticism); Psychics
International (quarterly journal of psychic and yoga research);
Parapsychology (an Indian journal of parapsychological
research from the department of parapsychology; Rajasthan
University, Jaipur), discontinued with the closure of the Department
of Parapsychology at Rajasthan University; and the
Journal of Indian Psychology (Andhra University).
The journal Kundalini (formerly Kundalini & Spiritual India)
was devoted to the study of consciousness evolution arising
from the work of Gopi Krishna and embodying more the mystical
realm than parapsychological. In this connection, a Central
Institute for Kundalini Research was established at Srinagar,
Kashmir, although it became inactive following the Gopi Krishnas
death in 1984. The influence of the mysticism and gurus
from India have been a strong influence in America for decades,
particularly since the 1950s.
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Belief. London, 1932. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y. University
Atreya, B. L. An Introduction to Parapsychology. Banaras,
India International Standard Publications, 1957.
Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of
Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York Paragon
Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology 5th Ed. INDIA
Bernard, Theos. Philosophical Foundations of India. London
Crooke, William. The Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern
India. Allahabad, India Government Press, 1894. Reprint,
2 vols. London A. Constable, 1896.
Garrison, Omar. TantraThe Yoga of Sex. New York Causeway
Gervis, Pearce. Naked They Pray. London Cassell, 1956.
Gopi Krishna, Pandit. The Biological Basis of Religion & Genius.
New York Harper & Row, 1971.
. Kundalini The Evolutionary Energy in Man. London
Stuart & Watkins, n.d. Reprint, Boulder, Colo. Shambhala,
Oman, J. Campbell. Cults, Customs & Superstitions of India.
London T. Fisher Unwin, 1908.
. The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India. London T.
Fisher Unwin, 1903.
Sanyal, J. M., trans. The Srimad Bhagavatam. 2 Vols., New
Delhi, India Munshiram Manocharlal, 1973.
Washington, Peter. Madame Blavatskys Baboon, A History of
the Mystics, Mediums, and Misfits Who Brought Spiritualism to America.
New York Schocken Books, 1993.