The art of interpreting character and destiny through the
lines in the human forehead (Greek metopon). It was developed
by the celebrated physician, mathematician, and astrologer Jerome
Cardan (1501–1576). His work, including some 800 illustrations
of faces, was published in an edition edited by C. M.
Laurenderio, titled Metoposcopia, libris tredecim, et octingentis Faciei
humanae Eiconibus complexa Cui accessis Melampodia de Navis
Corporis Tractatus Graece et Latine nunc primum editus (Lutetiae
Parisorum, 1658). Although his interpretations were confined
to lines in the forehead (coupled with astrology), his ideas were
a forerunner of the physiognomy of J. K. Lavater (1741–1801).