Ceremonial magic declined in the eighteenth century and
most of the ritual books became buried in libraries. The surviving
knowledge was collected into a single volume by Francis
Barrett in The Magus (1801). However, in the mid-ninteenth
century, a revival of ceremonial magic began with the career
and writings of Éliphas Lévi. Lévi not only made a new collection
of magical knowledge, but, by drawing upon mesmerism,
reworked it into a system more compatible with the scientific
spirit of the age. He integrated divinatory work with the tarot
into the new system, thus suppling enough information that
readers who chose could begin to practice ceremonial magic
Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology 5th Ed. Ceremonial Magic
Toward the end of the century, organizations based upon
the practice of ceremonial magic began to appear, the most important
being the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England.
Cofounder S. L. Mathers rediscovered many of the
older grimoires, which he mined for material to include in the
Golden Dawn teachings, and published several of them. His effort
was followed by that of Aleister Crowley, who developed
a more psychologically oriented magical system based upon the
exercise of the will (thelema).
Through the twentieth century, ceremonial magic has
spread through the West, though it has never been the most
popular of activities due to its stringent requirements. Several
groups, such as the Ordo Templi Orientis, have become international
Howe, Ellic. The Magicians of the Golden Dawn. London:
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972.
King, Francis. Ritual Magic in England. London: Neville
Lévi, Éliphas. Transcendental Magic. London: G. Redway,
1896. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1970.
Melton, J. Gordon, and Isotta Poggi. Magic, Witchcraft, and
Paganism in America: A Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing,
Shah, Idries. The Secret Lore of Magic. London, 1957. Reprint,
New York: Citadel Press, 1957.
Waite, Arthur E. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts. London:
George Redway, 1898. Reprinted as The Book of Ceremonial
Magic. London: William Rider & Sons, 1911. Reprint, New
Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1961. Reprint, New York:
Bell Publishing, 1969.