According to psychic researcher James H. Hyslop, the interpretation
by the operator of unconscious muscular movements
in the subject experimented on. As no paranormal perception
is involved in the interpretation, psychical research is
not specifically concerned in muscle reading, although the special
sensitivities involved may have some relevance to the mechanisms
of paranormal cognition. Some have suggested that
what has been interpreted as telepathy may in fact be conscious
or unconscious muscle reading.
Beard, George Miller. The Study of Trance, Muscle Reading
and Allied Nervous Phenomena. New York, 1882.
Dessoir, Max. Experiments in Muscle Reading and
Thought-Transference. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical
Research 4, 10 (188687).
Sugden, E. H. Note on Muscle Reading. Proceedings of the
Society for Psychical Research 1, 4 (188283).