Plummer, George Winslow (1876–1944)
George Winslow Plummer, cofounder of the Societas Rosicruciana
in America, was born August 25, 1876, in Boston,
Massachusetts. He graduated from Brown University and
moved to New York City as an artist. Along the way he joined
the Masons. At this time there was within the Masonic movement
a Rosicrucian society, but its membership was limited to
Masons. In 1907 Sylvester C. Gould decided to found a Rosicrucian
group that would be open to all. Plummer worked with
Gould in the formation of the group, the Societas Rosicruciana
in America, and the founding of a periodical, The Rosicrucian
Brotherhood. Gould died in 1909, and Plummer emerged as the
sole leader of the society, a position he held for the rest of his
life. He also founded the First Rosicrucian Church in America.
He was ordained and later consecrated as a bishop (1918) by
Manuel Ferrando of the Reformed Episcopal Church.
In 1916 Plummer founded the Mercury Publishing Company
and launched Mercury, a quarterly, as the official periodical
of the Societas Rosicruciana in America. By 1920 he was able
to quit his secular job and become the full-time executive of the
society. He led in the founding of six colleges (Rosicrucian
groups) in the United States and one overseas in Sierre Leone.
Plummer expanded his interest in an esoteric Christian
mysticism in early 1902 with the founding of the Seminary of
Biblical Research, a correspondence school, for which he wrote
a series of lessons called Christian Mysticism. In 1924, with Episcopal
priest Arthur Wolfort Brooks, he founded the Anglican
Universal Church of Christ in the U.S.A. He and Brooks went
their separate ways in 1927, and Plummer emerged as archbishop.
In 1934 he was reconsecrated by William Albert Nichols
of the Holy Orthodox Church in America. The Anglican Universal
Church and Holy Orthodox Church in America merged
and took the name of the latter body.
Plummer developed congregations of the Holy Orthodox
Church in all of the cities where Rosicrucian lodges had previously
been developed. He also consecrated four men to assist
him, one of whom, Stanislaus Wotowski, eventually succeeded
Plummer as head of the church.
Plummer wrote a number of books, including the Rosicrucian
Fundamentals (1920), Principles and Practice for Rosicrucians
(1947), The Art of Rosicrucian Healing (1947), and The Science of
Death (1978). He also wrote the lessons for the Rosicrucian society.
Plummer died January 26, 1944, and was succeeded by Witowski
and his wife, Gladys Plummer. His widow eventually
married Witowski and succeeded him. She was known during
the last years of her life as Mother Serena.
Plummer, George Winslow. The Art of Rosicrucian Healing.
New York Society of Rosicrucians, 1947.
———. Consciously Creating Circumstances. New York Society
of Rosicrucians, 1939.
———. Principles and Practices for Rosicrucians. New York Society
of Rosicrucians, 1947.
———. The Science of Death. New York Society of Rosicrucians,
Voohris, Harold V. B. Masonic Rosicrucian Societies. New
York Press of Henry Emmerson, 1958.
Ward, Gary L. Independent Bishops An International Directory.
Detroit Apogee Books, 1990