Rosen, (Samuel) Paul
A sovereign grand inspector-general of the 33rd degree of
the French rite of Masonry, who in 1888 decided that Masonry
was diabolical in conception and to prove his strictures published
a work called Satan et Cie. The Satanism credited to Freemasonry
by Rosen was social anarchy and the destruction of the
Catholic religion.
In 1890, he published a further attack titled L’ennemie sociale;
Histoire documentée des faits et gestes de la Franc-Maçonnerie
de 1717 à 1890 en France, en Belgie et en Italie. He made accusations
of a ‘‘supreme directory’’ of Freemasonry in Berlin.
Such conspiracy accusations were common from the eighteenth
century onward, reflecting social unrest and the involvement
of Freemasons in the various revolutionary causes of the
period. Freemasonry was generally pictured as anti-Catholic,
pro-Jewish, subversive, and even diabolical. Substance for these
acusations was provided by the prominent role of Freemasons,
from George Washington to Garibaldi, in the anti-monarchical
and secularizing trends of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Rosen’s delusions were soon eclipsed by the infamous and
sustained hoaxes of Gabriel Jogand-Pagès, who, under the
name ‘‘Léo Taxil,’’ claimed to have exposed Satanism in Freemasonry.
This plot was double-edged, since it was also designed
to embarrass and compromise the Catholic Church