Divisions of the spirit world, both in spatial and moralspiritual
senses. The doctrine of spheres, in a literal sense, was
integral to the ancient world, and much of occult teachings—
astrology, magic, Gnosticism—emerged in such a cosmology.
It was retained in the occult culture and has passed into modern
theosophical and Spiritualist circles, where it has remained,
though the spheres are usually thought of as levels of a multidimensional
Spiritualists have developed a doctrine of the spheres based
upon the communications of spirits in the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries. The information conflicts at many points,
and there is no authority to declare for one opinion over another,
but there is a general agreement as to the number of
spheres. They are seven (1) Hell, (2) Sphere of Desires, (3)
Summerland, (4) Mind, (5) Abstract, (6) Meeting of the Sexes,
and (7) Union of the Sexes.
There is some contradiction as to whether the Earth should
be considered as the first sphere. It is said that the first sphere
is the abode of gross and ignorant spirits. It is gloomy and desolate,
replete with sadness and misery. After a realization of
their state and the circumstances that cast them into it, the desire
for progress and betterment will transfer the spirits into the
second sphere where, in a scenery as natural as that on Earth,
harmony, love, and kindness help to develop the higher qualities
of the soul.
The period of the stay in a particular sphere varies individually.
The higher spheres cannot be perceived by spirits in the
lower ones. Information on the higher spheres is obtained from
visitors descending to lower spheres. Owing to a lack of conception,
no adequate description can be conveyed to us. It is also
said that beyond the spheres are the heavens of boundless extent.
These are the ultimate abodes of the glorified and blessed.
Hudson Tuttle, in his book Arcana of Spiritualism (1871), furnishes
an interesting exposition of the origin of the spheres.
According to Tuttle, the spirit world is built up from atomic
emanations. Exhalations from all substances ascend as mist
rises from a sheet of water. The spirit world therefore depends
on the Earth for its existence and is formed through its refining
instrumentality. Without the Earth there could not have been
corresponding spirit spheres, actually zones rather than
spheres. They are 120 degrees wide; that is, they extend 60 degrees
on each side of the equator. If we take the sixtieth parallel
of latitude each side of the equator and imagine it projected
Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Spheres
against the blue dome of the sky, we have the boundaries of
these zones.
The first zone, or the innermost one, is 60 miles from the
Earth’s surface. The next external one is removed from the first
by about the same distance. The third is just outside the moon’s
orbit, or 265,000 miles from the Earth. From the third sphere
rise the most sublimated exhalations, which mingle with the
emanations of the other planets and form a vast zone around
the entire solar system, including even the unknown planets beyond
the vast orbit of Neptune (the spirits had yet to inform
him of the existence of Pluto).
The first zone is nearly 30 miles in thickness, the second 20,
the third but two miles. While the Earth is slowly diminishing,
the spheres are gradually increasing. The surface of the zones
is diversified with changing scenery. Matter, when it aggregates
there, is prone to assume the forms in which it existed below.
Hence there are all the forms of life there as on Earth, except
those, such as the lowest plants and animals, that cannot exist
surrounded by such superior conditions. The scenery is of
mountain and plain; river, lake and ocean; and of forest and
prairie. It is like Earth with all its imperfections perfected, and
its beauties are multiplied.
The first trance reference to spheres in the lineage of modern
Spiritualism seems to have been made by Frederica Hauffe,
the seeress of Prevorst. The second is contained in a letter
from G. P. Billot to J. P. F. Deleuze in 1831. Billot wrote
‘‘They taught that God was a grand Spiritual Sun—life on earth
a probation—the spheres, different degrees of comprehensive
happiness or states of retributive suffering—each appropriate
to the good or evil deeds done on earth. They described the ascending
changes open to every soul in proportion to his own
efforts to improve.’’
The first exact dimensions were claimed by J. A. Gridley in
his book Astounding Facts from the Spirit World (1854). According
to his data, the first sphere is 5,000 miles, the sixth 30,000
miles from the Earth’s surface.
Diagrams of the spheres were first drawn by Hauffe. Nahum
Koons in the Koon loghouse was the second to provide detailed
sketches; his information was supplemented by accounts given
through the trumpet (see also Jonathan Koons).
Robert Hare differed from Gridley and agreed with Hudson
Tuttle inasmuch as his communicators put the distance of the
nearest sphere as 60 miles from the Earth’s surface. But his further
distances did not tally with Tuttle’s calculations. He placed
the sixth sphere within the area of the moon. He was told that
the spheres are concentric zones, or circles, of exceedingly refined
matter encompassing the Earth like belts or girdles. They
have atmospheres of peculiar vital air, soft and balmy. Their
surfaces are diversified with an immense variety of picturesque
landscapes, with lofty mountain ranges, valleys, rivers, lakes,
forests, trees and shrubbery, and flowers of every colour and variety,
sending forth grateful emanations.
As flights of unverifiable speculation proceeded, almost
every trance description of the spheres asserted something different.
Eugene Crowell, in The Identity of Primitive Christianity
with Modern Spiritualism (2 vols., 1875–79), states that he had received
the following figures the first sphere is within our atmosphere,
the second is about 60 miles from the earth, the third
about 160, the fourth 310, the fifth 460, the sixth 635, the seventh
865 miles.
Precise information was tendered in J. Hewat McKenzie’s
Spirit Intercourse (1916). The supposed spirit of William James
was quoted as the authority behind the statements. The disagreement
is all too apparent. ‘‘The third sphere, the Summer
Land, is 1,350 miles from the earth, the fourth 2,850, the fifth
5,050, the sixth 9,450, and the seventh 18,250.’’
The sustenance of the body in superphysical states is derived
from the atmosphere by inhalation in the ordinary act of
breathing; the material for clothing and houses is manufactured;
there is a union of sexes in a bond of affection, with no
offspring; the animals that live there have previously existed on
Earth; the spiritual worlds of each planet unite at the seventh
sphere; the spheres are built of essences cast off by millions of
tons of matter that condense into solid substance and float in
space like vast continents, by the operation of centripetal and
centrifugal attraction; and the passage from one sphere to the
other is effected by gradual refinement of the spiritual body
under the effect of the spirit.
An impressive conception of after-death states was disclosed
in Geraldine Cummins’s The Road to Immortality (1932), a book
said to be dictated by the spirit of F. W. H. Myers. According
to the chapter ‘‘The Chart of Existence,’’ the journey of the soul
takes place through the following stages
1. The Plane of Matter.
2. Hades or the Intermediate State.
3. The Plane of Illusion.
4. The Plane of Color.
5. The Plane of Flame.
6. The Plane of Light.
7. Out Yonder, Timelessness.
Between each plane or new chapter in experience, there is
existence in Hades or in an intermediate state when the soul
reviews his past experiences and makes his choice, deciding
whether he will go up or down the ladder of consciousness.
Although there is marked disagreement between different
accounts of spirit worlds in the afterlife, it will be recalled that
this is also characteristic of the eschatology (considerations of
the afterlife) of the different Eastern and Western religions.
It has been claimed that spirits who have not become purified
and refined and remain tied to earthly desires have been
easier to contact and that their communications would be unreliable.
Advance spirits would have moved on to more rarified
planes of existence. However, that idea seems to be contradicted
by the attempts to identify various spirits with advanced beings
from the past.
It is interesting to note that many individuals who have experienced
out-of-the-body travel, especially as part of a neardeath
experience, have reported a remarkable similarity of
content in terms both of positive experiences of moving toward
a bright light and meeting light beings, as well as negative experiences
of a purgatorial realm. These experiences, however,
have no relation to the spiritualist doctrine of the spheres.
Cummins, Geraldine Dorothy. The Road to Immortality. London
I. Nicholson & Watson, 1933.
Tuttle, Hudson. Arcana of Spiritualism. N.p., 1871. Reprint,
Manchester The Two Worlds Publishing, 1900; Chicago J. R.
Francis, 1904.