Vision (Ocular and Inner)
Ocular vision is the perception of material objects in accordance
with optical laws from a definite point in space. Difficult
to classify are those rare cases when the sense of sight is transposed
and the subject ‘‘sees’’ with his elbows, forehead, fingertips
or stomach, since it is not clear what mechanism of vision
is involved.
Inner vision is independent of space, objective existence,
and, seemingly, optical laws. The simplest type of inner vision
is presented by memory images, waking dreams, and images of
imagination. The latter type may attain such an intensity as to
emerge spontaneously and reach the pitch of hallucination.
Hallucination is the widest extent of inner vision. Dreams
represent the primary type. They are hallucinations of low intensity.
Generally, hallucinations appear to conform to all factors
of ocular vision—space, optical laws, objectivity. The images
appear externalized in space.
Indeed, objectivity in some cases of hallucinations may be
more than an appearance, as some believe that a camera may
register an apparition when outwardly nothing is visible and
the vision must have taken place internally (see psychic photography).
A still stronger proof of objectivity is furnished by
cases of veridical visions in which the perception is afterward
found to be a true visual representation of incidents taking
place at a distance.
On the other hand, no objectivity is discoverable in degenerative
hallucinations, the dogs and snakes of the drunkard,
the scarlet fire of the epileptic, or the visions of the psychotic.
Inner vision may be developed empirically in crystal gazing
and afford fruitful study for the determination of what elements
are externalized from the subconscious mind of the
scryer or of discarnate intelligences. Visions may also be distinguished
as either spontaneous or induced. (See also Transposition
of the Senses.)

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