Woodruff, Joseph L(eroy) (1913–1988)
Professor of psychology active in the field of parapsychology.
He was born October 8, 1913, in Galesburg, Illinois. He
studied at Tarkio College, Missouri (B.A., 1936) and Duke University
(M.A., 1939; Ph.D., 1941). While at Duke, Woodruff, in
conjunction with Joseph G. Pratt, conducted one of the most
famous ESP tests, still generally considered one of the best ever
carried out in parapsychology.
In 1946 he began a lengthy tenure teaching psychology at
the City College of New York. For some years Woodruff conducted
quantitative research in extrasensory perception, with
particular reference to the relationship between certain subjective
aspects of card-calling and success in calling. In 1959 he
became the secretary of the board of trustees of the American
Society for Psychical Research. He was also a charter member
of the Parapsychological Association. He died July 23, 1988.
Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of
Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York Paragon
House, 1991.
Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology.
New York Helix Press, 1964.
Woodruff, J. L. ‘‘Some Basic Problems for Parapsychological
Research.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 12 (1948).
Woodruff, J. L., and Laura A. Dale. ‘‘ESP Function and the
Psychogalvanic Response.’’ Journal of the American Society for
Psychical Research 46 (1952).
———. ‘‘The Psychokinetic Effect Further ASPR Experiments.’’
Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
41 (1947).
———. ‘‘Subject and Experimenter Attitudes in Relation to
ESP Scoring.’’ Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
44 (1950).
Woodruff, J. L., and J. G. Pratt. ‘‘Size of Stimulus Symbols
in Extrasensory Perception.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 3 (1939).